Important Child Development Stages - First 5 Years | Children's Bureau

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09/25/2018

Por qué los primeros 5 años de desarrollo infantil son tan importantes

As parents, we make it our goal to do whatever we can to improve the lives of our children. We read baby and toddler parenting books, research various topics, provide social interaction, and ask lots of questions because we know desarrollo infantil temprano within the first five years of life are critical. One of the topics that become so important in parenting is our child’s physical and cognitive development. While no two children develop on the exact same timeline, there are sensitive time periods in which major developmental milestones are reached. One of the most critical stages of development and learning es desde el nacimiento hasta los cinco años. Los primeros cinco años de desarrollo infantil. are crucial to their health, wellbeing, and the overall trajectory of their lives in a variety of ways. Fortunately, there are many things that parents can do to help in their child’s growth and development.

child development milestones

 

Child’s Physical Growth and Development in the First Year

A key measure that is often used in regards to physical development is “hitos.” Developmental milestones are defined as the abilities that most children are able to perform by a certain age. During the first year of a baby’s life, physical milestones are centered on the infant learning how to master self-movement, hold objects, and develop hand-to-mouth coordination. Because rapid growth takes place before the age of one, milestones are characterized by months.

Nacimiento a 3 meses

During this time frame, newborns begin to build upon their rooting, sucking, and grasping reflexes. Infants begin to tug and pull on their own hands, clench them into fists, and bring them to their mouth, all while learning to repeat their own body movements. One of the most significant physical milestones that are reached during this time frame is head control. A baby will begin to hold their head up for a few seconds with support, and also learn how to slightly raise their head when lying on their stomach.

Parents can encourage their child’s physical development during this time frame by providing what is commonly known as “tummy time.” Tummy Time is supervised, playtime that babies spend on their stomachs while awake. Tummy time strengthens your baby’s neck, back, and arms. It also lays the foundation for the later development of higher-level motor skills, hand skills, visual skills, and even speech and feeding skills.

3 a 6 meses

At this age, babies begin to develop greater dexterity and strength. Most infants will begin to roll over, sit up with support, pull their bodies forward, pull themselves up by grasping the edge of the crib or another solid object, bring objects to their mouths, reach for objects, and play with toys. Caregivers can help little ones develop during this stage by providing a variety of different toys and sensory-stimulating objects.

6 a 9 meses

Durante este tiempo, los niños se vuelven cada vez más móviles. Por lo general, comienzan a agarrar y jalar objetos hacia su cuerpo, se sientan sin apoyo, transfieren elementos de una mano a la otra, ¡y muchos incluso comienzan a gatear!

9 a 12 meses

In this window of development, most babies are able to pull themselves to a seated position, stand without assistance, take their first steps, pick up and throw objects, roll a ball, and grasp objects between their thumb and one finger. In addition to the major milestones such as standing up and walking, this is a significant developmental period of a child’s ability to begin to develop more advanced fine motor skills.

Child’s Physical Growth and Development from 1 to 5 Years Old

After the 1-year-old milestone, physical growth still happens tremendously, but the developmental windows are much wider. Here are a few of the typical, developmental milestones that are reached between ages 1 and 5.

1 a 2 años

  • Recoger cosas mientras está de pie
  • Caminando hacia atrás
  • Colorear o pintar moviendo todo el brazo
  • Garabatos con marcadores o crayones
  • Perillas y manijas giratorias
  • Subir y bajar escaleras sin ayuda
  • Moviéndose y balanceándose con la música

2 a 3 años

  • Corriendo hacia adelante
  • Saltando en un lugar
  • Pateando una pelota
  • Parado en un pie
  • Pasar páginas de un libro.
  • Dibujar un círculo
  • Sosteniendo un crayón o marcador entre el pulgar y los dedos

3 a 4 años

  • Andar en triciclo o scooter
  • Bajando por un tobogán sin ayuda
  • Lanzar y atrapar una pelota
  • Tirar y manejar juguetes
  • Caminando en línea recta
  • Construyendo torres altas con bloques de juguete
  • Manipulando la arcilla en formas

4 a 5 años

  • Saltando sobre un pie
  • Caminando hacia atrás
  • Haciendo saltos mortales
  • Cortar papel con tijeras de seguridad
  • Imprimir cartas
  • Copiar formas (como cuadrados y cruces)

Ayudar a los niños a alcanzar sus hitos físicos

En general, la progresión del desarrollo físico durante la primera infancia es algo sorprendente de observar & #8211; y los padres tienen un asiento de primera fila! Una de las mejores maneras en que la familia puede ayudar a promover el desarrollo infantil is to simply create a supportive and encouraging environment. For babies, this means giving little ones plenty of room to roll, crawl, and play, as well as plenty of safe objects nearby to practice grasping, grabbing, shaking, and placing in their mouth.

In toddlerhood, large motor skills can be developed when parents provide plenty of opportunities for young kids to practice their newly emerging abilities through physical activity. Giving them the space, time, and resources they need to kick, climb, run, jump, and balance is especially important in fostering a child’s growth and promoting healthy development. Parents can help their kids develop their fine motor skills in much the same way. Providing them with play experiences that involve putting together puzzles, drawing, cutting with safety scissors, or stringing beads will help young children build better fine motor movements and improve their hand-eye coordination. Remember, all kids truly need in the early years of their development ¡es un espacio seguro para explorar el mundo que los rodea y un adulto atento para ayudarlos en el camino!

 

Cognitive Development and Learning in a Child’s First Five Years

Data compiled by the Rauch Foundation found that 85 percent of a person’s brain is developed by the time they are five years old! As a result, these first years of life are critical to healthy early childhood development. As with physical development, cognitive, social, and emotional milestones represent important steps forward in a child’s development. Here are some common, cognitive milestones that are reached between ages zero to five:

Nacimiento a 3 meses

Durante este período, la mayoría de los bebés comienzan a ver los objetos con mayor claridad, se centran en objetos y caras en movimiento, diferencian entre diferentes gustos, detectan diferencias en el tono y el volumen, comienzan a ver colores, demuestran expresiones faciales y comportamientos anticipatorios, como el enraizamiento y la succión en el sitio de un pezón o biberón.

3 a 6 meses

Los bebés comenzarán a desarrollar un sentido de percepción más fuerte, y comenzarán a reconocer rostros familiares, responderán a las expresiones faciales de otras personas, reconocerán y reaccionarán a sonidos familiares, y comenzarán a imitar las expresiones faciales y sonidos de otros.

6 a 9 meses

Entre los seis y nueve meses de edad, los bebés mayores comienzan a comprender las diferencias entre los objetos animados e inanimados y reconocen las diferencias entre las imágenes que representan diferentes números de objetos. También pueden utilizar el tamaño relativo de un objeto para determinar qué tan lejos está, así como mirar más tiempo a los objetos suspendidos en el aire (como un globo o un avión).

9 a 12 meses

Antes del año de edad, la mayoría de los bebés comienzan a comprender el concepto de objeto permanente, or the idea that an object continues to exist even though it cannot be seen at the moment. This developmental milestone is also when separation anxiety may begin when a caregiver leaves the room. Additionally, during this time frame, babies will begin to imitate gestures and some basic actions, respond with gestures and sounds, enjoy looking at picture books and manipulate objects.

1 a 2 años

During this developmental stage, most one-year-olds can:

  • Understand and respond to words
  • Identify objects that are similar and different
  • Explain the difference between “Me” and “You”
  • Imitate both the actions and language of adults
  • Can point out familiar objects and people in a picture book.

Overall, young toddlers are constantly learning through imitation and exploration!

2 a 3 años

As 2-year-olds, toddlers are becoming very independent! Because they are now able to better explore the world, most of the learning during this toddler development stage is the result of their own experiences. While developmental milestones may vary during this time, some may include:

  • Ordenar objetos por categoría (es decir, animales, formas, números, flores, árboles, etc.)
  • Apilar juguetes de mayor a menor
  • Responder a instrucciones simples de padres y cuidadores
  • Nombrar objetos familiares en un libro ilustrado
  • Objetos a juego
  • Imitando acciones adultas más complejas
  • Participar en juegos de fantasía (como jugar a las casitas, hablar por teléfono, pretender cocinar o lavar la ropa, etc.)
  • Identificando su propio reflejo en el espejo
  • Diciendo su propio nombre

3 a 4 años

After this milestone for 3-year-olds, young children become capable of understanding more complex ideas. As they observe the world around them, kids start to analyze and sort the things they see. This type of categorization is usually referred to as the development of cognitive schemas. Children also begin to wonder how things work, and why. Their cognitive skills allow most of them to demonstrate understanding in regards to past and future events, as well as actively seek answers to their questions.

4 a 5 años

Children passing their 4-year-old milestones are progressively learning more every day—they become better at using words, imitating adult actions, counting objects, and other basic activities that are important for further language development and school preparedness. Around this age, most children are able to rhyme words, identify many colors, draw pictures of people, and explain where they live.

Cómo los años formativos negativos pueden afectar el desarrollo de un niño

Children need to be nurtured, talked to, and supported by their parents, especially during their first five years of life. But what if this doesn’t happen? What if a child’s caregiver is negligent of their parental duties? When parents fail to meet the emotional, physical, and mental needs of their child during these growth stages, that’s when future mental problems begin to develop. Studies show when a child experiences neglect at a young age, it often manifests into deep-rooted issues that stay with them throughout the child’s life, especially making an impact on the child’s emotional intelligence, emotional development, and social skills and ability to play with other children.

Children who do not receive proper treatment from their parents during these child development stages are prone to:

  • Behavioral issues
  • Low self-esteem,
  • Lacking a sense of belonging
  • Developing depression
  • Mental health issues
  • Addictions

Even if parents are not physically abusing their children, a child can still develop negative feelings and insecurities that affect them well into their lifetime. If the caregiver continues to neglect the child during their teenage years, the older child will feel like they don’t have a reliable support system at home and may try to find unsafe alternatives to cope with their insecurities.

Para aprender más sobre las experiencias adversas de la infancia, mira este artículo.

Resources to Help Your Child’s Development

Si bien el desarrollo cerebral durante los primeros cinco años es tan importante, ¡la mayoría de los niños ya están ansiosos por aprender! Si bien la educación formal comenzará pronto, la forma principal en que los bebés, niños pequeños y niños pequeños aprenden es a través del juego. En casa, los cuidadores pueden alentar esto ayudando a sus hijos a entender el mundo que los rodea. Primeros 5 California, una organización que tiene la misión de promover, apoyar y optimizar el desarrollo de la primera infancia, se ha asociado con Vroom para proporcionar a los padres más de 1,000 diversión y gratis consejos y actividades ¡para ayudar a agregar el aprendizaje a la hora de comer, bañarse, acostarse o jugar!

One of the primary things that First 5 emphasizes for these child development stages is that “Brains are built over time, but the primary foundations are constructed very early in life. While many factors influence brain development, [a parent’s] early intervention and interactions have the most impact – and they include talking, reading, and singing.” Overall, it is the simple, everyday moments that will help your children develop cognitively.

Talking with your child, leyendo a su niñoy cantarle a su bebé recién nacido ayudará a desarrollar su cerebro de maneras tremendas y a obtener beneficios para toda la vida.

Here, at Children’s Bureau, no podemos enfatizar lo suficiente lo agradecidos que estamos por los padres y otros cuidadores, que desinteresada e intencionalmente pasan el tiempo para asegurar que sus hijos crezcan para estar seguros, saludables y nutridos. Los niños realmente son el futuro de nuestro mundo, y el desarrollo saludable de la infancia dentro de los primeros cinco años es crucial.

Reviewed by Jose A. Ramos Jr., Director of Prevention

Jose A. Ramos Jr., MSW, is the Senior Program Director at Children’s Bureau and is on the Board of Directors. He has worked with Children’s Bureau since 1994 and has over 30-years of experience working in the Child Welfare field. He has a master’s degree in social work from the University of Long Beach and is earning his MBA. Jose is also Secretary of the National Association of Social Workers

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